Meteorology

 



Hurricane Season   

             ... an annual cycle from June 1 - November 30

Though large-scale weather events such as 'hurricanes' occur over all tropical oceans of the world, we will focus on those that may impact our location in New York State.  'Hurricane Season' is a cyclic period of time when the tropical Atlantic Ocean radiates significant amounts of heat energy into the atmosphere that can foster large-scale storms.  In previous decades, June 1 - November 30 have been the 'official' starting and ending dates of average storm formation during the year.  Whether called 'cyclones', 'typhoons', or 'hurricanes', the only differences in these large-scale storms are the ocean they form over. 

    • See also the Natural Disasters and Hazards Mitigation  page                                                                                                              [LivingTheEarthSciences]                                                                                   
    • Severe Weather 101                                                                                                                                                                             [NOAA Severe Storms Laboratory]
    • Atlantic Public Advisories                                                                                                                                                                   [NHC:NOAA]
    • Hurricane Season Summaries: In Maps                                                                                                                                               [Intellicast]
    • New Orleans and Hurricanes: Past, Present & Future                                                                                                                          [TIDE 122/Prof. Stephen Nelson/Tulane U.]
    • Updated Saffir Simpson Scale Table                                                                                                                                                    [NOAA]
    • Tropical Cyclones: A Satellite's Perspective                                                                                                                                        [CIMSS/SSEC/Univ.of Wisc]
    • How Hurricanes Work                                                                                                                                                                          [How Stuff Works]
    • Family Preparedness: Hurricanes                                                                                                                                                        [NJ Office of Emerg Mngmt]
    • Make a Hurricane                                                                                                                                                                                [Nat'l Geographic]
    • Hurricanes ... Including names and safety measures; and Saffir-Simpson Scale                                                                                [NOAA]
    • Why do hurricanes seem to move as if they have a mind of their own, and why do they follow such peculiar tracks?                    [How Stuff Works]
    • Don't be fooled ... the most dangerous aspect of a hurricane is NOT wind and rain, but coastal flooding.                                       [NOAA]
    • 'Could A Category 5 Hurricane Hit New York City?'                                                                                                                          [TropicalWeather.net]
    • The Future of Storms                                                                                                                                                                            [Aaron Byrd/NYTimes]
    • 'Houston braces for more flooding , chemical plant fires out'   by Michael Graczyk, Will Weissert, AP, Sept. 3, 2017.  Last accessed Sept. 4, 2017 at https://apnews.com/6358132ecc864c99952cd455eb7402ba
    • 'How to deal with flooded cars in Harvey's wake'  by Tom Krisher, Dee-Ann Durbin, AP, Sept. 3, 2017.  Last accessed online Sept. 4, 2017 at https://apnews.com/703a8e48065a48ce891c8d064aec0f7b
    • 'Toxic waste sites flooded in Houston area'  by Jason Dearen, Michael Biesecker, AP, Sept. 3, 2017.  Last accessed online Sept. 4, 2017 at https://apnews.com/27796dd13b9549b0ac76aded58a15122
    • 'Danger not over: Gas leaks, mold loom for Harvey evacuees'  by Jay Reeves, Carla K. Johnson, AP, Sept. 3, 2017.  Last accessed online Sept. 4, 2017 at https://apnews.com/5ec1208475bd415da26cd7da6187b8b5
    • 'As Harvey finally fizzles, a look at what made it so nasty'   by Seth Borenstein, AP, Sept. 3, 2017.  Last accessed online Sept. 4, 2017 at https://apnews.com/521809b994ba48b9836250650148cc68
    • 'Before and After: Dramatic Satellite Photo's Show Texas Towns Underwater'   by Laurel Wamsley, Katie Park, and Alyson Hurt, NPR, Sept. 1, 2017.  Last accessed online Sept. 4, 2017 at http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/09/01/547688960/before-and-after-dramatic-satellite-photos-show-texas-towns-underwater
    • 'Hurricane Irene (2011) - A Hydrological Catastrophe in the News'  by Nicholas K. Coch.  AIPG / TPG Sept/Oct 2012. p. 47 - 52.  Last accessed online August 28, 2017 http://www.wcsu.edu/weatherconference/IRENE%20(AIPG)%20.pdf
  
 
Watch
        • The Future of Storms                                                                                 [Aaron Byrd/NYTimes]
        • BBC Weather How Hurricanes Form                                                        [LEAK/YouTube] 2.5 min 
        • New Research and Forecast Model Simulates Sandy-type Storms           [NOAAVisualizations/YouTube] 1 min 
        • Anatomy of a Hurricane                                                                             [The Quick Brown Fox Jumps over the Lazy Dog/YouTube] 5 min 
        • Hurricane Katrina Day Day                                                                       [National Geographic/YouTube] 5 min 
        • Hurricane Katrina from satellite                                                                [siajaver/YouTube] 1 min 
        • Earth Observatory  > Features > Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth 
        • Jeremiah Warren: How are hurricanes named?                                          TED.com
        • Understanding Hurricane Rita Through Video and Images                      [About.com; Rachelle Oblack]
        • Video & Animation Chapters                                                                    [MontereyInstitute/NOAA]
        • Stronger Hurricanes                                                                                   [NOVA: scienceNOW]
        • 2016 Hurricane Season Forecast Calls For Near-Average Activity in the Atlantic   by Chris Dolce & Jon Erdman, Weather.com, May17, 2016. https://weather.com/storms/hurricane/news/2016-hurricane-season-forecast-atlantic-colorado-state-csu 
 
Track

        • Hurricane Tracking Map of the Atlantic Basin [PDF] found at bottom of page



Weather Forecasting Skills 

        ..... when will we have our first 'Snow Day'?


Wind, Humidity, Air Pressure & Temperature (W.H.A.T.) are the four variables of 'weather'

Changes among these four factors at all altitudes of the atmosphere, every minute of every day, and their interactions amongst each other, yield differences in weather.  Predicting these changes and interactions (predicting the weather) is extremely difficult and complicated, though satellite technology has greatly assisted meteorologists in improving accuracy.


Weather effects our daily lives, of course, but more importantly weather patterns over long periods of time (cycles) influence more than our daily routine.  Seasonal changes, decadal changes, century-long cycles and millenial cycles also affect the planet.  Climates (and changing climates, as we see today), the formation of rocks on Earth, our ability to view and interpret light from distant stars in space, all of it is related to weather and the interactions amongst winds, humidity levels, air pressure and temperatures in the atmosphere. 


Our ability to sustain ourselves on  Earth's surface is directly dependent upon weather patterns, but also the longer-term cycles that have a great impact on all species and the Earth's surface.  To explore more long-term cycles, visit Climates & Climate Change.

 

    • Jetstream - Online school for weather                                                             [NOAA: NWS]
    • Weather 101                                                                                                     [USA Today]
    • CloudSAT                                                                                                        [NASA]
    • PENN State E-Wall of Meteorological data

Listen
    • Clouds & Earth's Energy Balance                                                                  [Bruce Wielicki/NASA; EarthSky]     8 min

Watch
    • 10 Years of Weather in 3 Minutes                                                                     [NOAA Visualizations/YouTube]         3 min



Gradient & Computer Modeling 


Watch
    • Detailed Forecast Discussion – 1/22/2016              (**start at Min 1:30)                 [Hudson Valley Weather/YouTube]    15 min



The Carbon Cycle 

Watch
    • NASA: Keeping Up With Carbon [720p]                        [Our Universe Visualized/YouTube] 5:30 min 
    • Ocean Particles Big & Small                                            [WoodsHoleOceanus/YouTube] 4 min 



The Nitrogen Cycle 

Watch
    • Nitrogen Cycle in the Soil                                              [Yara International/YouTube] 5:30 min 



The Hydrologic Cycle 

Watch
      • Science Casts: Mud Matters                                            [ScienceAtNASA/YouTube] 3 min 


The Greenhouse Effect

Watch
      • 'The Greenhouse Effect'                                                                                [HMMI]    2 min
      • The Greenhouse Effect: Climate Control & Global Warming                      [greenplanetfilms/YouTube]     5 min



The Ozone Layer

Watch
  • Mystery In The Ozone Layer                                                               [ScienceCasts/YouTube]            4 min
  • NASA / Why are the ozone holes getting smaller?                              [NASA Goddard/YouTube]       1.20 min

The Jet Stream

  • Real-Time Jet Stream Animations                                                                                           [CA Regional Weather Server]
  • The Jet Stream Explained                                                                                                        [NWS JetStream]
  • Jet Stream map                                                                                                                         [Intellicast]
 

Watch

    • The Jet Stream [720p]                                                          [Our Universe Visualized/YouTube] 30 sec 
    • How Does The Jet Stream Work?                                       [KCRA News/YouTube] 4 min 
    • Minute: Blowin’ In The Wind                                             [NASA EarthMinute/YouTube] 1 min (Impacts of global winds) 
    • The Coriolis Effect                                                              [NOVA PBS/YouTube] 3:30 min 
    • Why Do Clouds Stay Up?                                                    [It’s OK To Be Smart/YouTube] 6:30 min 
    • Climate Science: What You Need To Know                        [It’s OK To Be Smart/YouTube] 6 min 
    • Rainshadow Effect                                                                [Discover the Ice Age Floods/YouTube] 4:30 min



Interpreting Synoptic Weather Maps = Predicting the Weather


Watch
  • What are weather fronts?                                         [Met Office/YouTube] 5:30 min
  • The Coriolis Effect                                                  [NOVA PBS/YouTube] 3 min
  • How Does the Jet Stream Work?                             [KCRA News/YouTube] 4 min
  • What is the Jet Stream & How Does It Work?        [Met Office/YouTube] 2 min


Station Models

  • Station Models                                                                                                                          [NOAA:Jetstream]

Watch
  • Earliest Known BBC Weather Forecast (Autumn 1953)                                           [Essex Weather and Flood Forecasting Centre/YouTube]        3 min
  • AWESOME 3D Explanation on How Different Precipitation Types Form!             [The Weather Channel/YouTube]       3 min




Forecasting Severe Weather:  Planning and Preparing for Safety 

  • Natural Disasters & Hazards Mitigation                                                                             [LivingTheEarthSciences]
  • WW2010 - The Weather World 2010 Project
  • Hydrometeorological Prediction Center                                                                             [NWS:NOAA]
  • Expert Assessments                                                                                                             [NWS Climate Prediction Center]
  • U.S. Drought Monitor                                                                                                          [NWS CPC]
  • Tornado FAQs                                                                                                                     [Roger Edwards of NOAA/SPC]
  • Extreme Storms                                                                                                                   [Video picts by Jim Edds]
  • Weather Videos                                                                                                                   [CNN]
  • Weather News & Video's                                                                                                    [Accuweather.com]
  • Severe Weather Primer                                                                                                       [NOAA]
  • Weather Safety                                                                                                                    [NSW]
  • The Young Meteorologist Game                                                                                         [NOAA/AMS]
  • Interactive: Weather Lab App                                                                                              [Smithsonian]
  • 'The rare weather phenomenon that produced a giant mushroom cloud in Arizona'   by Akshat Rathi, Quartz.  July 20, 2016.  http://qz.com/736341/the-rare-weather-phenomenon-that-produced-a-giant-mushroom-cloud-in-arizona/



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hkhmcardle,
Jul 15, 2013, 1:06 PM