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RR Vocabulary

 

Vocabulary in Regents Earth Science

 

 

 Essential Question = What are some basic skills that Earth scientists use to measure changes in the environment?

  • model (1.1)
    • oblate spheroid (p. 71)
    • observation
    • inference
    • prediction
    • evapotranspiration (1.1)
    • geothermal energy (1.1)
    • tidal energy (1.1)
    • thermodynamics (1.1)
    • variable – a factor or part of an experiment that changes
    • geology  - the study of all parts of Earth, and how they change over time
    • geologist
    • paleontology (29.1)
    • paleontologist
    • abundance – a lot of something
    • seismologist
    • hydrosphere (1.1)
    • biosphere (1.1)
    • oceanographer
    • compass direction – the direction as shown by a compass in words (Northeast, South, etc.)
    • atmosphere (1.1)
    • air pressure – the weight of the overlying atmosphere on Earth’s surface
    • lithosphere – the solid rocky outer shell of Earth, plus the uppermost part of the mantle
    • meteorologist
    • equatorial – of or from the equator of a planet
    • frame of reference – a place or object that is used for comparison
    • initial time – the starting time
    • static - unchanging                          
    • classification – the grouping of objects based upon observable characteristics                                
    • cyclic – the repetition of events at regular intervals of time
    • non-cyclic – events that may or may not repeat, but do not do so at regular intervals of time
    • percentage error
    • deviation            
    • density – the concentration of matter
    • salinity (22.3)
    • revolution – the motion of an object changing position around another object
    • rotation – the motion of an object spinning on its axis
    • hurricane (20.4)
    • storm surge (20.4)
    • Saffir-Simpson scale (20.4)
    • evidence (2.1)
    • rate – the amount of change that takes place over a certain period of time
    • to list – to create a list of terms or items that address the question.
    • to explain – to use your own words to fully provide information in 2 – 3 complete sentences.
    • to describe - to use your own words to fully provide a statement (1 – 2 sentences) of information.
    • direct – a relationship where the two variables both increase or both decrease
    • inverse – a relationship where the two variables are opposite one another
    • horizon – the line where the land meets the sky
    • horizontal – on the same plane as the horizon (‘flat’)
    • vertical – straight up and down, perpendicular to horizontal
    • interface – a boundary or zone of contact between two materials
    • inferred – an educated guess based upon observations
    • undergone – to have experienced
    • interpretation – an explanation based upon inferences and observations
    • molten – in liquid form due to high temperatures
    • Not to scale – a model or diagram that is not the same size or proportion as the object being represented
    • velocity – speed of an object in a certain direction
    • axis
    • terrestrial – of or from Earth
    • coordinate – a location using measurements
    • terrestrial coordinates – latitude and longitude
      • Essential Question = What sources of energy generate our electricity usage today?

        Resources

        • environment (7.1)
        • renewable resources (7.1)
        • non-renewable resources (7.1)
        • ore mineral (7.1)
        • reserve (7.1)
        • fossil fuels (7.2)
        • uranium (7.2)
        • hydroelectric power (7.2)
        • nuclear fission (7.2)
        • wind power (7.2)
        • solar power (7.2)
        • geothermal power (7.2)
        • tidal power
        • conservation (7.3)
        • recycling (7.3)

         

        Essential Question = How does the energy in Earth’s atmosphere create changes in weather?  

        • profile view – an image as seen by the observer looking in from the side ( a side view)
        • aerial view – an image as seen by the observer looking down from above (a top view)
        • temperature (17.2)
        • thermometer
        • altitude – the height above sea level in the atmosphere
        • Troposphere (17.2)
        • Stratosphere (17.2)
        • Mesosphere (17.2)
        • Thermosphere (17.2)
        • composition – a list of the parts or pieces or elements that make something up
        • ozone (17.2)
        • ionosphere (17.2)
        • ion
        • cosmic – coming from space
        • to radiate
        • to absorb
        • condensation  - the change in state from a gas to a liquid (gives off heat energy)
        • evaporation – the change in state from a liquid to a gas (steals heat energy)
        • convection (17.2)
        • convection cells – the shape of heat energy transfer in a fluid
        • radiation (17.2)
        • conduction (17.2)
        • electromagnetic spectrum
        • latent heat energy 
        • vaporization – evaporation, for a liquid to change to a gas                         
        • specific heat
        • insolation (17.2)                                         
        • wavelength – the size of an energy wave from crest to crest (or trough to trough)
        • frequency – how many times something occurs in a period of time
        • intensity – the concentration and strength of energy on a surface
        • radiative equilibrium – a balance between outgoing and incoming heat energy    
        • dynamic equilibrium – a balance in opposing forces of energy
        • Greenhouse Effect –heating of Earth’s atmosphere by the absorption of heat energy by certain molecules
        • Sunspots – regions on the solar surface that are darker, cooler and magnetically charged.              
        • aurora borealis – the ‘Northern Lights’; displays of color and light in the upper atmosphere
        • angle of insolation     
        • duration – the amount of time something takes to occur
        • duration of insolation                       
        • time lag
        • surface ocean current (24.1)
        • density current (24.2)
        • upwelling (24.2)

           


        Essential Question = How do patterns assist in weather prediction?

        • the observer – the person viewing or position of the viewpoint
        • weather – the minute-by-minute changes in wind, humidity, air pressure and temperature for a location
        • hygrometer – an instrument that measures relative humidity
        • sling psychrometer – a hand-held hygrometer that measures relative humidity
        • anemometer – an instrument that measures wind speed
        • barometer
        • adiabatics
        • air masses 
        • source regions
        • Orogenic Effect – the temperature changes and change in humidity levels of air masses moving over mountain ranges
        • Coriolis Effect – the tendency of a fluid or object to curve away from its path of travel
        • Jet Stream – bands of swiftly flowing winds, one  near  the North  polar region, one near  the south polar region
        • relative humidity (18.1)                                                                     
        • dew point temperature (18.1)
        • condensation nuclei – particles of dust and pollution on which water vapor can condense to liquid droplets
        • saturated – when the substance is holding all of a material that can be held
        • capacity – the amount of material that a substance can hold
        • cirrus clouds (18.2)
        • stratus clouds (18.2)
        • cumulus clouds (18.2)
        • dry-adiabatic lapse rate (18.2)
        • wet-adiabatic lapse rate (18.2)
        • precipitation (18.3)
        • sleet (18.3)
        • freezing rain (18.3)
        • hail (18.3)
        • windward (18.3)
        • leeward (18.3)
        • sublimation  - the change in state from a solid directly to a gas
        • deposition – the change in state from a gas directly to a solid

        Weather Forecasting

        • uniform – something that is not changing, remaining the same
        • isolines  - lines that connect points of equal value
        • isobars (19.1)
        • isotherms – lines that connect points of equal temperature
        • pressure gradient (19.1)
        • wind – the movement of air across Earth’s surface
        • front – the leading, advancing edge of an air mass   
        • arid - dry                                                                                    
        • Rainshadow Effect  - the resulting aridity of air after moving up the side of a mountain range and precipitating moisture on the windward side
        • prevailing winds – continental or planetary scale winds that travel around the planet
        • land breeze (19.4)
        • sea breeze (19.4) 
        • monsoons (19.4)                                               
        • reflection – as light energy strikes certain surfaces, it will be returned in nearly the same angular direction
        • scattering – the random direction of reflection of energy upon striking a material
        • refraction – the change in angle light energy entering a material of different density
        • high pressure system (19.1)
        • low pressure systems (19.1)                                              

        Essential Question = How does Sol’s energy influence climates?   

        • climate – the average precipitation and temperatures of a location over years to decades
        • climate controls (21.1)
        • climatologist
        • core sampling (23.1)
        • ice sheets
        • glaciers
        • sea level
        • global warming
        • El Niño (21.2)
        • Magnetosphere (magnetic field) (26.1)
        • Van Allen Radiation Belts
        • fusion (26.1)
        • plasma (26.1)
        • solar wind (26.1) - normal daily expulsion of radiation outwards form the Sun in all directions of space
        • solar flare – a small scale solar storm in which plasma and solar wind escapes the Sun’s gravity
        • solar prominence - a small scale solar storm in which plasma and solar wind do not escape the Sun’s gravity
        • photosphere (26.1)
        • corona (26.1)
        • sunspots (26.1)
        • coronal mass ejection – a large scale solar storm in which large masses of plasma are ejected from the corona and photosphere

        ·        geologic time scale (30.1)

        • rock record (30.1)                                                           
        • bedrock – the solid crust beneath the soil, buildings and roads
        • orogeny - a mountain building event
        • fossil –
        • evolution (30.1)
        • natural selection (30.1)    
        • eon (30.1)
        • era (30.1)
        • period (30.1)
        • epoch (30.1)
        • shield (30.2)
        • craton – the oldest remains of bedrock on a continent
        • trilobite (30.2)
        • hominid (30.4)
        • bipedal (30.4)

               


        Essential Question = What is our address in the Universe?  

        ·        electromagnetic spectrum (28.1)

        ·        spectra (28.1)

        ·        spectroscope (28.1)

        ·        astronomy (25.1)

        ·        astronomer

        ·        cosmology – the attempt to explain all that we observe in deep space, the creation of theories

        ·        cosmologist

        ·        constellations (28.2)

        ·        asterisms – familiar pictures more easily recognized in a constellation

        • Big Bang Theory (28.4)
        • Expanding Universe Theory – the Universe continues to grow in size, at an ever-increasing rate of speed
        • Nebular Hypothesis (Theory) – the theory explaining how our Sol and the planets formed
        • Impact Theory (how the Moon formed) (25.1)
        • accretion – the joining together of many smaller pieces to make a larger object
        • Maria (25.1)
        • Highlands (25.1)
        • impact – a collision
        • rays (25.1)
        • regolith (25.1)
        • asteroids (27.4)
        • comets (27.4)
        • meteors (27.4)
        • meteorites (27.4)
        • meteor shower (27.4)
        • interstellar space – the vast reaches of space between stars in which there is a lot of dust and some molecules
        • Terrestrial planets (inner) (27.1)
        • Jovian planets (inner) (27.1)      
        • satellite – an object which revolves around another object                     
        • cosmic background radiation (28.4)               
        • stellar – ‘star’
        • Doppler Effect (28.1)
        • galaxy (28.4)
        • nebulae (28.3)
        • planets – large solid or gasous objects revolving around a star
        • stars – luminous spheres of plasma (fusion creates extreme amounts of heat and light energy)
        • Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram - (28.3)
        • main sequence (28.3)
        • giant stars (28.3)
        • supergiant stars (28.3)
        • white dwarfs (28.3)
        • apparent magnitude  (28.2)
        • absolute magnitude (28.2)
        • luminosity (28.2)
        • luminous – an object that gives off light
        • nova  - a stellar explosion
        • supernova (28.3)
        • neutron star (28.4)
        • black hole (28.4)
        • pulsar (28.4)
        • quasars (28.4)
        • astronomical unit (28.2)
        • light year (28.2)
        • parsec (28.2)

        Essential Question = How do the Earth and Moon move to produce the effects we see day and night?

        Earth in Space

        • terminator – the line dividing day and night on Earth’s surface
        • apparent – something that may seem real, but is not necessarily real
        • real – the actual event, what is
        • celestial – of or in the sky
        • parallax (4.3)
        • geocentric (26.2)
        • heliocentric (26.2)
        • gravitation (26.2)
        • ellipse – a curved shape resembling an oval
        • eccentricity – the mathematical description of the amount of deformation of an ellipse, how oval-like the shape is
        • foci – the two central points that create an ellipse        
        • focus –  a central point, or one of two foci         
        • lunar phases (25.1)
        • waxing (25.1)
        • waning (25.1)
        • gibbous (25.1)
        • solar eclipse (25.1)
        • lunar eclipse (25.1)   
        • umbra (25.1)
        • penumbra (25.1)                                                 
        • tides (24.3)                                                              
        • celestial sphere  - the imaginary crystalline sphere surrounding Earth on which all stars and objects are affixed                     
        • parallelism – the parallel position of Earth’s axis as Earth revolves around the Sun
        • orbit – the path of an object around another object
        • orbital velocity – the speed of a satellite in its orbit
        • star trails – the apparent path of stars in the night sky as they are time-lapse photographed                                                   

         

        Essential Question = How do we represent the Earth’s surface on maps?

        Mapping Earth’s Surface

        • radar (3.2)
        • false-color image (3.2)
        • Global Positioning System (GPS) (3.2)
        • United States Geologic Survey (3.2)
        • topographic map (3.3)
        • topography (3.3)
        • relief maps  - maps which have been raised to demonstrate elevation changes to the touch
        • contour lines (3.3)
        • contour intervals (3.3)
        • gradient (slope) (3.3)
        • magnetic declination (3.3)                                                                       
        • profile (3.3)
        • benchmark – symbol representing the location’s exact elevation, and an actual Benchmark on Earth’s surface                                           

        Landscapes

        • drought
        • groundwater (14.1) 
        • wastewater treatment plant (14.1)
        • sewage – human and animal waste (that which is flushed down the toilet)                             
        • porosity (14.1)                                  
        • permeability (14.1)                                  
        • capillary action (14.1)                                  
        • water table (14.1)                                  
        • well (14.1)                                  
        • spring (14.1)                                  
        • aquifers (14.1)                                  
        • artesian formation (14.1)                                  
        • geyser (14.1)                                                
        • water budget (14.2)                                  
        • hydrologic cycle  
        • mineral deposits (14.3)                                  
        • root zone – the soil range in depths to which tree, bush and grass roots grow
        • infiltration  - the downward movement of liquid water into open pores of soil by the force of gravity                                  
        • zone of aeration – pore spaces are filled with mostly air, but a small amount of capillary water remains
        • zone of saturation  - pore spaces are filled to capacity with water                       
        • karst topography (14.3) 
        • caverns (14.3)    
        • stalactite (14.3)                                  
        • stalagmite (14.3)                                                                                                 
        • sinkholes (14.3)                                  

         

        Essential Question = How did the Earth’s surface change to appear as it does today?

        Weathering, Erosion & Deposition

        ·        weathering (12.1)

        ·        chemical weathering (12.1)

        ·        decomposition – the breakdown of organic matter into simpler constituents

        ·        carbonic acid (12.1)

        ·        hydrolosis (12.1)

        ·        oxidation (12.1)

        ·        acid rain (12.1)

        ·        physical weathering (12.1)

        ·        disintegration (12.1)

        • root wedging (12.1)
        • frost action/wedging (12.1)
        • abrasion (12.1)
        • exfoliation (12.1)
        • soil – the end result of chemical and physical weathering
        • parent material (12.2)
        • residual soil (12.2)
        • transported soil – soil that has formed from rocks that were transported from a different location long ago
        • soil horizons  - different layers of soil separated by characteristics of organic matter and particle size      
        • topsoil  - the dark, nutrient-rich layer organic layer of the soil at the surface                                                              
        • colloids –very tiny particles carried in suspension by water
        • ions – charged atoms
        • in solution - dissolved
        • erosion (12.3)
        • agent – a means by which something is carried out (i.e. frost action is an agent of physical weathering)                                          
        • drainage patterns – stream patterns as seen from above, that indicate the bedrock that lies beneath
        • mass wasting/movement (12.3)
        • talus (12.3)
        • landslide (12.3)
        • turbidity currents (23.2)underwater landslides
        • creep (12.3)
        • mudflow (12.3)
        • lahar (12.3)
        • volcanic neck (12.3)
        • soil fertility (12.4)
        • soil depletion (12.4)
        • desertification – the destruction of soil to the point that desert landscapes take over (i.e. Dust Bowl of 1930’s)
        • salinization (12.4)
        • deposition (13.2)
        • tributary (13.1)
        • drainage basin / watershed (13.1)
        • discharge (13.1)
        • channel (13.1)
        • potholes (13.2)
        • in suspension – materials that are carried by flowing water
        • bed load (13.2)
        • delta (13.2)
        • alluvial fan (13.2)
        • headward erosion (13.3)
        • base level (13.3)
        • stream piracy (13.3)
        • graded bedding
        • horizontal bedding
        • sorted – materials classified by size, shape or density

         

        Glacial Ice, Wind and Waves

        • unsorted  - no organization of materials, all mixed up
        • glacier (15.1)
        • valley glacier (15.1)
        • continental glacier (15.1)
        • snow line (15.1)
        • firn (15.1)
        • basal slip (15.2)
        • plastic flow (15.2)
        • ice cap (15.1)
        • crevasses (15.2)
        • ice front (15.2)
        • iceberg (15.2)
        • calving (15.2)
        • grooves – large troughs left behind in bedrock after a rock has been pushed past by glacial ice
        • striations (15.2)
        • plucking
        • till (15.2)
        • moraine (15.2)
        • glacial valley (15.2)
        • hanging-valley (15.2)
        • cirque (15.2)
        • glacial erratic (15.3)
        • glacial flour – clay-sized particles of ground bedrock    
        • drumlin (15.3)
        • outwash plain (15.3)
        • eskers (15.3)
        • kettle (15.3)
        • kame (15.3)     
        • ice age (15.4)   
        • ventifact (16.1)
        • deflation (16.1)
        • desert pavement (16.1)
        • dust storm (16.1)
        • loess (16.1)
        • sand dunes (16.1)
        • pitted – appearance of materials weathered by sand abrasion in a desert environment
        • etched – a dulling appearance of materials weathered by sand abrasion in a desert environment
        • fetch (16.2)
        • breakers (16.2)
        • rip currents (16.2)
        • sea caves (16.2)
        • beach (16.2)
        • sandbar (16.2)
        • fjord (16.2)
        • escarpments – steep cliffsides

         

         

        Essential Question = What is the Earth made of?  

        Minerals

        ·        composed – to be made up of

        ·        minerals (5.2)

        • compound (5.2)
        • crystal (5.2)
        • silicate (5.2)
        • silica tetrahedra (5.2)
        • cleavage (5.2)
        • mineralogy (5.2)
        • mineralogist (5.2)
        • cleavage planes (5.2)
        • fracture (5.3)
        • luster (5.3)
        • color (5.3)
        • hardness (5.3)
        • streak (5.3)
        • specific gravity (5.3)
        • radioactivity (5.3)
        • phosphorescent (5.3)
        • magnetism (5.3)
        • double refraction (5.3) 

        Rocks

        • rock (6.1)
        • sedimentary rocks (6.1)
        • igneous rocks (6.1)
        • metamorphic rocks (6.1)
        • texture (6.2)                                                         
        • solidification  - the process of a hot liquid cooling to a solid
        • crystallization – the process of atoms organizing to form solid crystals
        • intrusion – the movement of liquid magma into existing cracks in bedrock or melting rock as it moves
        • pluton (6.2)      
        • plutonic – rock that has solidified deep within the crust
        • extrusion – the flow of magma onto Earth’s surface
        • fissure – a long crack in Earth’s crust
        • felsic (6.2)      
        • mafic (6.2)                          
        • batholith (6.2)      
        • magma chamber – the space within Earth’s crust that holds a large amount of molten rock viscosity the relative thickness of a liquid as it flows
        • magma – molten rock located beneath Earth’s surface
        • lava - molten rock located on Earth’s surface
        • clastic – made up of many particles or sediments
        • clastic rock (6.3)
        • chemical rock (6.3)    
        • organic rock  (6.3)
        • compaction – pressures have squeezed the material that it is denser than it once was
        • cementation (6.3)           
        • parent rock (6.4)
        • metamorphism (6.4)
        • foliation (6.4)
        • banding (6.4)
        • recrystallization under extreme pressures or heat, atoms in minerals will align into bands, not melting.                                      
        • contact metamorphism (local) (6.4)
        • regional metamorphism (6.4)
        • rock cycle (6.1)

        Essential Question = How do major changes in the lithosphere take place?

        Earthquakes & Volcanoes

        • cross-section – a diagram showing the profile view accompanied by labels
        • Plate Tectonics Theory (8.1)
        • Continental Drift Theory (8.1)
        • belt
        • zone
        • earthquake (10.1)
        • volcano (9.1)
        • viscosity (9.2)
        • pahoehoe (9.2)
        • aa (9.2)
        • intruded – for magma to squeeze into and melt rock inside the crust
        • extruded – for lava to flow out of the crust onto the surface
        • pillow lava (9.2)
        • pyroclastic material (9.2)
        • pyroclastic flow (9.2)
        • caldera (9.3)
        • lava plateau (9.3)
        • lahar (9.3)
        • composite volcano (9.3)
        • cinder cone (9.3)
        • shield volcano (9.3)
        • hot spot (9.2)
        • fault (10.1)                                                           
        • magnitude
        • P – waves (10.1)
        • S - waves (10.1)  
        • surface waves (10.1)                                         
        • divergent - the motion of two objects away from one another
        • divergent boundary (8.2)
        • rift valley (8.2)
        • rift (8.2)
        • convergent – the motion of two objects toward one another
        • convergent boundary (8.2)
        • mid-ocean ridge (8.1)
        • spreading center – a region of Earth’s crust where two plates are moving apart
        • subduction (8.2)                              
        • subduction boundary (8.2)
        • deep-sea trench (8.2)
        • island arc (23.3)
        • collision boundary (8.2)
        • transform boundary (8.2)
        • mantle convection (8.3)
        • asthenosphere (8.3)
        • seismograph (10.2)
        • seismogram (10.2)                                                                                  
        • seismologist
        • epicenter (10.1)
        • focus (10.1)
        • magnitude (10.2)                                         
        • origin – the place or time from where something begins                                                                
        • magnetic polarity (8.1)
        • liquefaction (10.3)                                         
        • aftershocks (10.3)                                         
        • tsunami’s (10.3)                                         
        • New Madrid Faultline (10.3)                                         
        • seismic gaps (10.3)                                         
        • polar reversals – the cyclic ‘flip-flop’ of the magnetic field of Earth (North becomes South, etc.)
        • shadow zones (10.4)                                         
        • Mohortovicic Discontinuity (MOHO) (10.4)                                         
        • isostacy – the tendency for lithospheric plates to ‘float’ on the mantle
        • uplift – a tectonic force which increases the elevation of the crust
        • outcrops - where bedrock is exposed at Earth’s surface                                                            
        • displacement – the movement of an object from where it was originally
        • offset – when two items  no longer line up together
        • tilting – a change in the position of a rock layer from the horizontal
        • deformation – to be warped or folded
        • folding (11.2)
        • syncline (11.2)
        • anticline (11.2)
        • normal fault (11.2)
        • reverse fault (11.2)
        • thrust fault (11.2)
        • strike-slip (transform) fault (11.2)
        • joint (11.2)

         

        Topography of the Ocean Floor

        • echo sounding (23.1)
        • continental shelf (23.2)
        • continental slope (23.2)
        • continenetal rise (23.2)
        • submarine canyons (23.2)
        • turbidity currents (23.2)
        • abyssal hills (23.3)
        • abyssal plains (23.3)
        • deep ocean vents (23.3)
        • seamounts (23.3)
        • guyots (23.3)
        • coral atoll (23.3)

         

        Geologic Time

        • rock record – all clues to Earth’s past history found in the solid bedrock of the crust   
        • absolute dating (29.3)                                                   
        • relative dating (29.2)                                                   
        • strata (29.2)                                                   
        • Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships (29.2)                                                   
        • Principle of Inclusion (Embedded fragments) (29.2)                                                   
        • half-life (29.3)                                                   
        • decay – the natural breakdown of radioactive elements into a different element
        • Principle of Uniformitarianism
        • Principle of Superposition (29.2)                                                   
        • strata (29.2)
        • unconformity (29.2)
        • inclusion – an object which becomes a part of another object
        • unconformity (29.2)                                                   
        • paleontology
        • mold (29.1)
        • cast (29.1)
        • trace fossil (29.1)
        • index fossils (29.2)                                                   
        • correlation (29.2)                                                   
        • key bed (29.2)                                                   
        • varve (29.3)                                                   
        • radioactive decay (29.3)                                                   
        • parent isotope (29.3)                                                   
        • daughter isotope (29.3)                                                   
        • half-life (29.3)                                                   
        • radiometric dating (29.3)                                                   

        ĉ
        hkhmcardle,
        Jun 2, 2012, 2:06 PM
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